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1 M. I. Yahaya, A. G. Jacob, Z. M. Agbendeh, G. P. Akpan and A. A. Kwasara 2012-06-12 Seasonal potential toxic metals contents of Yauri river bottom sediments: North western Nigeria Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Vol. 4(12) 212-221 www.academicjournals.org/JECE A study was conducted to investigate the seasonal level of heavy metals in bottom sediments of Yauri River, Northwestern Nigeria. Thirty composite samples of bottom sediments were collected at six demarcated sites along the river during the 2010/2011 raining and dry seasons. The heavy metals concentrations were determined with atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean levels range of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were 4.38 to 23.11, 11.08 to 74.13, 10.87 to 42.13, 100.69 to 301.02, 25.85 to 116.32, 10.11 to 34.11 and 18.91 to 109.62 μg/g for raining season and 6.25 to 13.09, 18.95 to 77.61, 17.39 to 64.05, 138.25 to 349.50, 56.13 to 91.60, 17.39 to 45.02 and 21.80 to 131.16 μg/g for dry season, respectively. The values generally were lower than the world shale values and sediment quality guidelines values. Sediments pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI). The calculations of EF showed that the river is contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. On the other hand the Igeo values suggested that the river is polluted with Cr and Pb and moderately polluted with Cu, Ni and Zn. Contamination factor values revealed that Fe and Ni have none to medium contamination while Cd and Pb are strongly polluted. Generally, according to the pollution load index (PLI) values calculated, the river is polluted with all the elements analysed. Some of the elevated concentrations of some of the heavy metals are probably due to anthropogenic and natural sources. It can be said that the environmental or human health impact involving these metals is occurring in the river and can cause hazard to sediments dwelling organisms in the river as well as the populace in the area through food chain. Key words: Heavy metals, Nigeria, seasonal, enrichment factor, contamination factor
2 Bello Oluwasesan M., Zack Agbendeh M. and Adikwu Jacob G. 2013-11-09 Comparative studies of phytochemical screening of Ficus sycomorus linn stem bark extract and Piliostigma thonningii roots extract Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 3(6) 69-73 www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Plants and its components have application in traditional medicine because of the myriad uses they have been subjected to. The ease of application is based on the secondary metabolites this plant contains. Present study deals with the qualitative analysis of Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanolic and N-Hexane extracts of stem bark of Ficus sycomorus Linn and extract of roots of Piliostigma thonningii. These were extracted by cold percolation method using organic solvents such as Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanol and Hexane. The methanol extract of stem bark of ficus sycomorus reveal alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, reducing sugars, resins, saponnins and tannins. The F.sycomorus is known as “Baure or Bore” and P. thonningii is known as” Kargo or kalgo” both in Hausa, they are small trees or shrub which have many uses as they are used in traditional medicine, and modern medical research has found that they have many beneficial properties. Keywords: Ficus sycomorus, Piliostigma thonningii, qualitative analysis, Baure, Kargo
3 Bello Oluwasesan M., Zack Agbendeh M. and Adikwu Jacob G. 2013-11-09 The comparative studies of phytochemical screening of Piliostigma thonningii root and leaves extract Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 3(6) 74-77 www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Nature was and will continue to be the source and lead for all medicinal drugs. The present study evaluates with the qualitative analysis of Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanolic and N-Hexane extracts of various parts of Piliostigma thonningii. These parts (Leaves and root) of Piliostigma thonningii were extracted by cold percolation method using organic solvents such as Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanol and Hexane. The various parts’ extracts of the plant reveal alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, reducing sugars, resins, saponnins and tannins. P. thonningii is known as” Kargo or kalgo” in Hausa, is a tree which has many uses as its various parts are employed in traditional medicine, and modern medical research has found that it has many beneficial properties too. Keywords: Piliostigma thonningii, qualitative analysis, Kargo, N-Hexane
4 Etong, D.I.1, A.O. Mustapha1, I.G. Lawrence2, A.G. Jacob3 and M.O. Oladimeji4 2014-06-21 Nutritional and Physicochemical Properties of Wheat (Triticum vulgare), Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Flours Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 13 (8) 439-445 www.pjbs.org/pjnonline The flours from cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and wheat (Triticum vulgare), were analyzed for proximate composition, functional properties and some anti-nutritional factors using standard methods. Results of proximate composition indicates that the ash contents ranges between 2.18-6.26%, with potato flour having the highest and cassava the least. The protein content ranges between 7.21-20.96% with cassava flour having the least and wheat the highest value. The fat content ranges between 0.45% for cassava to 9.60% for wheat, crude fiber 2.80% for potato to 6.19% for cassava, moisture content 7.20% for wheat to 8.23% for cassava, carbohydrate 53.89% for wheat to 75.74% for cassava and energy content 327.81kcal for cassava to 385.56kcal for wheat. The result of functional properties indicates that water absorption capacity ranges between 125 to 210%, oil absorption capacity 168.30 to 191.68%, foaming capacity 4 to 27%, foaming stability 1 to 4%, emulsion stability 47 to 53%, least gelation 2 to 4%, bulk density 59.98 to 66.03%. Anti-nutritional factor indicates that the samples were richer in phytate than oxalates which ranges between 9.06 to 14.83 and 2.07 to 4.50 mg/g, respectively. These result shows that cassava and potato are suitable for the baking industry and blending makes them more acceptable due to synergetic effect. Key words: Cassava, potato, wheat, flours, proximate composition, functional properties

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